Of all the chelonians-turtles, tortoises and terrapins-the smallest is the speckled cape tortoise or speckled padloper (Homopus signatus). It has a shell length of 6-9.6 cm (2.3-3.7in)-so small that the tortoise can hide in tiny gaps between rocks.
Delcourt’s giant gecko (Hoplodactylus delcourti) is known from only a single mounted and stuffed specimen measuring 61cm (2ft) long. It had been on display at the Marseille Natural History Museum in France for more than a century before, in 1979, it was recognized by curator Alain Delcourt as representing a species unknown to science. The gecko was formally named and described in 1986.
In a series of experiments conducted by Professor Raymond Huey from the University of Washington, USA, and colleagues at the University of California at Berkeley, USA, the highest burst speed recorded for any reptile on land was 34.9km/h (21.7 mph) achieved by Ctenosaura, a spiny-tailed iguana from Central America.
Of all the egg-laying reptiles the tuataras have to keep their eggs warm the longest before they are ready to hatch. Scientists have recorded tuataras incubating eggs for as long as 13 to 15 months before their offspring emerge from their shells.
Read more: http://scienceray.com/biology/18-weird-and-most-rarest-reptiles-in-the-world/#ixzz1WLmbkFFc
The false gharial (Tomiostoma schlegelii), a crocodilian with long, narrow jaws and a slender snout native to south-east Asia, lays eggs that typically measure 10×7cm (3.94×2.76in). Despite its name, recent studies have shown that the false gharial is more closely related to other gharials than crocodiles and alligators.
Measuring up to 3.13m (10ft3in) and weighing around 70kg (154lb 5 oz), the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest lizard. In 2009, researchers at Melbourne University, Australia, discovered that the reptile also possesses a pair of venom glands in its lower jaw that secretes a venom containing several different toxic proteins.
The freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni) can attain speeds reaching 17 km/h (10.56mph) when in full gallop-a mode of terrestrial locomotion that only a few species of crocodile can accomplish. Native to Australia, this crocodile rarely grows large than 2.5-3m (8-10ft).
Unlike most other animals with nocturnal vision, the helmeted gecko (Tarentola chazaliae) can perceive colours at night. This is thought to be due to the higher density of colour-sensitive large cone cells in the lizard’s retinas.
The giant tortoises (Chelonoidis nigra) of the Galapagos Islands are the largest tortoise species. A specimen named Goliath, who resided at the Life Fellowship Bird Sanctuary in Seffiner, Florida, USA, from 1960 until his death in November 2002, was 1.35m (4ft 5.5in) long, 1.02 m (3 ft 3.6in) wide, 68.5cm (2ft3in) tall and weighed 417 kg (920 lb),
Australia not only contains more species of venomous snake than any other includes among those snakes no less than nine of the world’s top 10 most venomous snake species. These include such (in) famous serpents as the inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus)-perhaps the world’s most venomous snake-the eastern brown snake (Pseusonaja textilis) at the number two spot, the coastal taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) third and the tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) fourth.
The greatest reliable age recorded for a snake in captivity is 40 years 3 months 14 days for a male common boa (Boa constrictor) named Popeye, who died at Philadelphia Zoo, Pennsylvania, USA, on 15 April 1977.
The estuarine, or saltwater, crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is found throughout the tropical regions of Asia and the Pacific. The Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary in Orissa State, India, houses four measuring more than 6m (19 ft 8 in) in length, the largest being over several unauthenticated reports of specimens up to 10 m (33 ft) in length. Adult males average 4.2-4.8m (14-16 ft) in length and weigh about 408-520 kg (900-1,150 lb).
The dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus) of northern South America is the smallest crocodilian in the world today. Females rarely exceed a length of 1.2m (4ft) and males rarely grow to more than 1.5m (4 ft 11 in).
Unlike most other animals with nocturnal vision, the helmeted gecko (Tarentola chaazaliae) can perceive colors at night. This is thought to be due to the higher density of color-sensitive large cone cells in the lizard’s retinas.
There are only two species of tuatara, both of which are found exclusively in the islands off the main coast of New Zealand. Of the two, the greatly endangered Brothers Island tuatara (Sphenodon guntheri) is the largest. It can (2 ft 6 in) long and have a maximum weight of 1.4 kg (3 lb 1 oz).
Until it was rediscovered in 1990, the Jamaican iguana (Cyclura collie) was thought to be extinct. With no more than 100 adult specimens located since 1990, the species is considered critically endangered and it is clinging to survival in southern Jamaica’s remote Hellshire Hills-the only sizeable area of dry forest remaining on the island.
The venom of a single bite from the king cobra (Ophiophagus Hannah), found in south-east Asia and India, is enough to kill an elephant, or 20 people. What’s more, it can grow to 3.65-4.5m (12-15ft) in length and can stand tall enough to look an adult human in the eye.
There were fewer than 200 Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) living in the wild in 2002. Found in the lower parts of the Yangtze River in wetlands, the species can grow 10 2 m (6 ft 6 in) and weigh 40 kg (88 lb). Their numbers have dwindled over time due to habitat destruction and killing by local farmers.